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A Short History of English


•هذا الملف يحتوى على العصور الآتية
1- The age of Dryden (1660-1700)
2- The age of pope (1700-1745)
3- The age of Johnson (1745-1798)
4- The age of Wordsworth (1798-1832)
5- The age of Tennyson (1832-1887)
بالنسبة ل هادري الدكتور مشرحش حاجه فيه

The age of Dryden (1660-1700)

1-What are the two elements that influenced the literature in Dryden's age ?

1-The influence of the age on literature:
The Stuart Restoration was followed by an great change in the general temper of the English people and this reaction went so far that together with the galling restraints which religious fanaticism had unwisely imposed. England now touched low-water mark in its social history. The court of Charles the second was he most shameless this country has ever known. The moral ideals of puritans were turned into jest. Even outside the circle of the court and aristocracy, where things were at their worst, في كل مكان)) The spirit of corruption spread far and wide.
These conditions have a great effect on literature and because literature is a social product and reflects the life of the era.
The literature of the age of Dryden was corrupted. Real earnestness of purpose had passed away and with this strong passion, and with this again great creative
(الطاقة الابداعية الخلاق)energy.
2-The influence of France on literature:
In the Restoration age, France had become the world's great style of taste. Thus, France had a great influence on English literature. The European supremacy of Italy had now passed away and France had become the world's arbiter of taste. The political relations between the two countries increased the influence of France. The contemporary literature of France was characterized by lucidity and by reason and a great attention given to form – correctness, elegance and vivacity. It was the literature that English writers took as a guidance. The final result of this influence was the growth of an artificial type of poetry.

2-What are The Forerunners of Dryden and How they affected him ?

In the period of Dryden there were two writers, whom he himself regarded as his masters, and who were considered the pioneers of poetry. And so-called classic school of poetry – Edmund Waller and sir of the so-called "classic" John Denham.
They avoided obscurity of the metaphysical poets and adopted the good sense and clear expression. In fact, They were the reformers of English poetry. Dryden maintains that
 "The excellence and dignity of time were never fully known till Mr. Waller taught it."
This means that Waller was the poets who re-shaping the heroic couplet which we know as the classic or closed form.
In this kind of heroic couplet the metrical pause and rhetorical pause come together.
ü  Heroic Couplet Two rhyming lines of verse which are written in iambic pentameter to form a complete thought
Firs Follow Nature, and your Judgment frame.
By her just standard, which is still the same.
ü Iambic pentameter is a line of verse consisting of five feet and each foot begins with unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one.

3-Give an account on Dryden's life and his main works ?

John Dryden is regarded as one of the most important liberal and Neo-classical critics.
He wrote his first poems, the "Heroic stanzas on the death of Oliver Cromwell", and in celebration of the restoration he wrote " Astraea Redux ". In 1670, he was made poet laureate" and in 1681, he start a new chapter in his life with the publication of the first of his great satires in verse Absalom and Achitophe. In May, 1700, he died.
John Dryden was a great English poet, literary critic, translator, and the literary life of Restoration age to such a playwright who dominated point that the period came to be as the "Age of Dryden". As a poet he ripen very slowly. His first poem an elegy of the death of the lord hasting was very bad. His Heroic stanzas, contain a few fine lines and images are crude and bombastic. He was influenced by the characteristics of the metaphysical taste and began to form the Neo-Classical school which revealed his poetic talent.

4-What are the heads, which mark the establishment of the classical school of poetry in England ?

The Political satires : 'Absalom and Achitophel' a defend the Kings policy against the Earl of Shaftesbury. "The Medal", another invective against Shaftesbury and "Mac Flecknoe", a personal attack " on a former friend, Thomas Shadwell, who had replied to the Medal in a poem filled with abuse.
ü Poems The two great doctrinal: "Religio Laici" and " The Hind and Prather"
v      These two poems are not written in the strict religious sense.
v      There is nothing spiritual about them.
v      They are written in two opposed points of view.
v      They are argumentative than poetical. So, he was the first one who joined argument with poetry.
v      His mental flexibility and agility gave him remarkable power as a special pleader.
ü The fables: These tales were written when Dryden was ill-health, so they give him a little to rank. Among our best story-tellers in verse.
For example, The " Palamon and Arcite", based upon the "knights Tales of Chaucer," providers an opportunity for a comparison between the method and art of the 14th century, and those of the 17 century poets.

5-What are the main characteristics of Dryden's Poetry ?

·    Dryden's poetry in its limitations and merits is representative of the age.
·    It has little imaginative power, little depth of feeling and little spiritual glow or fervor.
·    On the other hand, it is characterized by wonderful intellectuality and a manly vigor of style.
·    If Dryden is seldom poetic, he at least gives us many passages of wonderful, strength eloquence. ( (بلاغه
·    He holds his own as a satirist and as a reasoned in verse. In both these fields, he is still our greatest master.
·    It was Dryden's influence that lifted the classic couplet into the place it was to occupy for many years.  

6- Give an account on Butler and his important works ?

Butler: he was the only important poet of this period after Dryden. Butler lives on the strength of one work which is "hudibras" a satire on the puritans.
And saints. Hudibras tells us about the misadventures of a knight and his squire.
Sir Hudibras being a military knight dealt violently with people who weren't puritans; while his squire, Ralpho, is an imposter, who assumes the mask of virtue for his own profit that will be set by heels.

7-What are the main Characteristics of Hudibras ?

·      To modern taste "Hudibras" is far too long; some of it best passages suffer from prolixity.
( (اطاله
·      It is full of wit and vivacity وضوح .
·      It's doggerel (irregular) meter is fitted to the spirit and purpose of the burlesque (comic)
·      It was butler's intention to kill puritanism by ridicule.
·      Butler saw only the extravagance and the charlatanism that were associated with puritanism.

8-What are the differences between the old and the new prose of the Age of Dryden ?

Matthew Arnold says "The Restoration marks the real moment of birth of our modern prose', and enables us to be clear, plain and short.
The older prose was too complex the sentences were long; it followed Latin syntax بناء الجملة  parentheses جمل اعتراضية  were many. In the new prose all these characteristics are changed. The sentences are much shorter and simpler; the parentheses are cleared away.

9-What are the Causes that lead to establishment of the new prose ?

ü     The Spread of the spirit of common sense and of the critical temper of mind which was so damaging to the interests of poetry.
ü     The influence of science, which favored clearness of thought and plainness of expression.
ü     A new kind of public was growing up which was varied in character and tastes. This change of public meant that things which had formerly been treated in a dry, and difficult way had to be made simple and pleasant.
ü     In the age of political and religious excitement, there was a great development of that sort of literature which we now class under the head of journalism.
ü     The influence of France literature. France had evolved a kind of prose that, with its clearness, flexibility, and good taste, provided the model that the English writers needed for their guidance.

9-What are the main characteristics of Dryden's prose and give an account on john Bunyan ?

·      In his criticism he discusses nearly all topics, which were of interest to the literary world of his time; the forms and methods of the drama, the relations of art and nature…etc.
·      His best criticism found in his writings on the drama, and particularly in the "Essay of Dramatic Poesy ", in which he considers the types of drama.
·      Dryden often writes hastily and is careless in detail and he accepted the limitations and prejudices of his age, so it has a historical important.
·      His prose style is characterized by clearness, vigor and colloquial ease العامية .
The only really great name in the prose literature of Dryden's age is that of john Bunyan. He was born at Bedfordshire. Bunyan wrote much; but his four great works are "grace Abounding"," The pilgrim's progress", "The life and Death of Mr. Badman" and " The Holy war."

10-Give an account on Bunyan and his important works ?

ü He is only man in our literature who has ever succeeded in writing a long prose allegory حكاية رمزية.
ü The combined vividness حيوية  and plainness of his writings is also another remarkable feature of his work.
ü Bunyan was not an educated man; he knew nothing of the classics; nothing about theories of literature or nothing even, about English literature.

11-What is the opposition between Bunyan & Milton ?

·      Both were puritans; Milton, the master of all the learning of the schools, was fed also by the renaissance, while Bunyan was the child of puritanism only. If therefore we are asked to name the greatest product of puritanism on English literature, our choice should fall on " the pilgrim's progress" rather than on" paradise lost"
هنا بنقول ان الاثنين نتاج للحركة التطهيرية ولكن ميلتون متعلم ولكن اذا اردنا ان نأتى بعمل يعبر عن الحركه التطهريه سيكون هذا العمل هو عمل بيونين وليس ميلتون

12-What are the main characteristics of Dryden's prose and give an account on john Bunyan ?

The controlling didactic purpose and the allegorical form prevent us from putting it into the class of regular modern novels. But because of the interest of the narrative, the characters, the dialogue, the dramatic power, and the grasp of ordinary life, it should be regarded as a forerunner of the novel.

13-Give an account on the Drama of the age of Dryden ?

The theatre was now a creature of the demoralized مفسود اخلاقيا , world of fashion, as it reflected يعكس the taste of its patrons. زبائن
The comedy has dash سرعه  and gaiety; مرح  and its wit خفه الدم  is plentiful وافر  but it is entirely بشكل كامل  lacking in truth to nature.
Tragedy, though it kept free from the corruption of comedy. Its most popular form was that of the Heroic Drama.
Dryden himself was the master of his from, which is shown in its perfection كمال  in his " Tyrannical love", and his " conquest of Granada"
The fashion of the Heroic Drama did not, however, last very long, and a reaction towards other forms set in his " All for love" Dryden, reverted to  Shakespeare and blank verse الشعر الحر.
The age of pope (1700-1745)

14-What are the main characteristics of the age ?

The writers became as preachers, واعظين  they convince people not through feelings but through intellect.
It is a literature of, intelligence, of wit, not a literature of emotion, passion, or creative energy.
The age of pope is sometimes called the classic Age and sometimes the Augustan Age of English literature. It is also called the age of " reason" or the age of the " enlighten"
It is classical because poet and critics use the classical literature as their models.
It is Augustine as the age of Augustus was the golden age of Latin literature, so the age of pope was the golden age of English literature.
Characteristics of the classical school of poetry Classical poetry is didactic تعليمى  and satiric a poetry of argument and criticism, of politics and personalities.
It show no real love of nature, landscape, or country things and  people.
In the age of pope, there were a hatred of the 'Romantic in literature and a hatred of enthusiasm in religion.
The love of the form led to a highly artificial style.

15- Give an account on the life and the works of pope ?

Alexander pope (1688-1744) is regarded as one of the most important Neoclassical poets and  critics of the English Augustan period.
Pope's poetic career falls into three periods:
·      To the period before 1715, he wrote: "four pastorals", "The Messiah", and "Windsor forest"
"Alexander pope's" An Essay of criticism" is regarded as his major critical work. Pope intended the essay to be a treatise in which he formulates his critical principles. The essay is of great importance since it sums up the tenets تعاليم  ideals of Neo-classicism.
"The Rape of the lock" which may be called pope's masterpiece. تحفه فنيه  pope defines the poem as "heroic comical". It is better to call it a mock Epic.
·      The translation of the "lliad" and " The Odyssey" represents the labors of pope's second period.
·      After the publication of his "Homer", pope confined قيد  himself to satiric and didactic تعليمي  poetry. He wrote " The principal work of his third period are satire and Epistles to Dr.Arbu Dunciad" "The Essay on Man" a poem in four.

15-What are The main characteristics of pope ?

·      He had neither the imaginative power nor the depth of feeling without which great poetry is impossible.
·      His view of life was narrow and shallow سطحية  view. But he was the very embodiment تجسيد  of the idea of intelligence which was currently known as "wit"
·      He is also the most excellent بارع  master of the classic couplet. Pope's couplet was followed by all other poets till the early nineteenth century.
Other poets of the period
Mathew prior: he wrote a parody محاكاة ساخرة  of Dryden's " The Hind and the panther", entitled" The Town and country Mouse". He produced an imitation تقليد of " Hudibras" called" Alma", and a long and very serious poem "Solomon"
John Gay: he wrote "Fables" a series of six pastorals ", قصائد رعوية  the shepherd's week", "trivia', a humorous description of the London street
Edward Young: He wrote "Night Thoughts" a gloomy poem.

16-Talk about Drama in the age of Pope ?

Daniel Defoe
Daniel Defoe is a journalist and pamphleteer, He had the keenest sense of what the public wanted, because he is a son of a butcher. Thus, he writes with acknowledge of his audience mainly the puritan Middle classes and select themes which will have an immediate appeal of them.
He regards the novel not as a work of the imagination but as a true relation.
دانيال ديفو هو صحفي وكاتب منشورات كان لديه احساسا شديدا بما يريده الجمهور لأنه ابن جزار وهكذا فأنه يكتب مع الاعتراف من جهوره والذى معظمه من الطبقات الوسطى باختيار المواضيع التي سيكون لها نداء فورى منهم فهو .يعتبر الرواية ليس عملا من الخيال بل كعلاقه حقيقية

Defoe proceeded to work producing" The life and the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe", " The Memoirs of a cavalier" , " Captain singleton" , " Moll Flanders", etc. His fiction were still thrown into biographical form and no attempt was made towards the organization of the materials into a systematic منظم  plot ; and, since it was his object at all time to give to his invention the air and semblance شكل  of truth, his stories are told as if they were stories of actual life.
وواصل ديفو العمل على انتاج "حياة ومغامرات روبنسون كروزو" و "مذكرات الفرسان" و "الكابتن سينغلتون" و "مول فلاندرز" وما الى ذلك وكانت خيالاته لاتزال تطرح فى شكل السيرة الذاتيه ولم تبذل اى محاوله نحو الافكار فحبكه دراميه منظمه وبما انه كان هدفه فى كل وقت لأعطاء اختراعه شكل حقيقى قصصه كما لو كانت قصص من الحياة الفعليه

The age of Johnson (1745-1798)
"General Prose"

17- In the second half of the eighteenth 18th century, there were great changes taking place in the spirit of English society. Discuss


·    The new generation reacted against the coldness and the dryness of the preceding age.
·    They began to crave يتشوق الى  something more natural and spontaneous in thought and language.
·    The emotion were now reinstated رجعت الى وضعها  and all life.
·    We see this also in the case of religion. The preachers used the feeling to convince people, not the reason.
·    People became familiar with the notion شعارات  of liberty and equality.
·    The literature will reveal in many ways the conflict of old ideas and new.

18- Give an account about Samuel Johnson and his main works ?

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) is an English poet, critic and journalist. He is regarded as one of the eminent اهم  figures of the 18th century.
He wrote,' A dictionary of the English language', in which he illustrated his definitions of elements of literature by quotations اقتباسات  taken from the English literature.
He published his didactic tale, "Rasselas", in 1759
His largest and also his greatest work," The lives of the Most eminent English poets with critical Observations on their works " in 1779-1781.
He died in 1784, and was buried, in Westminster Abbey.
As a critic of literature, he is always penetrating ذو حث ثاقب  and stimulating. نشيط  In all his tastes he was conservative and holding the principles of the Augustan school of poetry.
Oliver Gold Smith
The writer who stands nearest to Johnson himself is Oliver Goldsmith.
Most of his works belong to the class of what are popularly known as " Pot-boilers الارزقية " His most important works are " "The Traveler" and "The Deserted Village ", one novel" The vicar Wakefield", and two comedies " The Good-Natured Man" and " she stoops to conquer."
To these should be added a number of essays including a series entitled "the citizen of the world"
A striking مدهشه  feature of Gold Smith's original writing is the strong personal element in all them.
Other Prose Writers of The Period
Some of the best prose Work of Johnson's age was done in history a field which was now cultivated with greater success in artistic spirit than.
David Hume Wrote a "History Of England" Which is characterized by clearness of style, but greatly marred فسد  by carelessness in facts and by strong favour of the Stuart was against the puritans.
William Robertson Made a great mark with his " History of Scotland", "History of Charles V", and " History of America."
Edward Gibbon wrote "History of the Decline and fall of the Roman Empire " That remains one of the masterpieces تحفة  of the Historical literature.
Edmund Burke, a man of noble nature, who wrote: On American Taxation" and " On conciliation with America"
The Novel

19-Discuss the various elements through which the Novel would undergo and signify the historical significant of Novel.

Compare and contrast both Richardson with reference to Gothism discussing its illustrious importance to the development of the Novel ?

Prose fiction in England Before Richardson
It may be contended يجادل  that it was with Richardson that prose fiction (Novel) passed into its modern from. Before him the novel was as the following:
During the age of Shakespeare, most of the hands of Aphra Behn and several other women-writers. They began to develop a form of story which was marked by brevity. الايجاز
Also, we must mention Bunyan's effective use of fiction as allegory and the increasing popularity of biography سيره  used by Defoe.
In the first place, the popularity of the Novel coincided with and depended upon the growth of a various reading public.
Secondly, the novel was a sign that literature was beginning to get rid of the limitations of classicism.
Thirdly, the rise of the novel was one result of the democratic movement in eighteenth century England. It discussed all sorts and conditions of men, the middle class, and low life.
Samuel Richardson may be called the father of the modern novel. He is a rich printer, who had reached the age of 50 without realizing any talent موهبه  for authorship; التأليف  and then moved انتقل  by mere مجرد  accident his task when a true story had heard many years before came to his mind.
No one, even Defoe, had yet written a novel of contemporary social and domestic منزلية  life such a novel Richardson Produced in " Pamela."
The story tells of a young girl, who is a long time persecuted مضطهده  by the addresses معاكسات  of the libertine فاسق  son of her mistress now dead and successfully resists all his arts and intrigues خداع  until at last, his heart begin softened towards her, he makes her his wife.
He also wrote two successors" تابعين  clarissa" and "sir Charles Grandson"
"Clarissa" is Richardson's masterpiece: and it is still regarded as one of the greatest of 18th century novels.
Richardson's books are extremely long, and are filled with repetitions and unimportant detain. They are all written in the form of the letters which pass among the characters. He carried on the ethical أخلاقي  traditions of Addison and Steele. His works contributed in the purification of the society.
    He is an 18th century novelist. He turns Pamela into burlesque هزل . This was the origin of " The Adventures of joseph Andrews". As Richardson's heroine had been tempted تغوى by her master, so his hero is tempted by his mistress; and he keeps up the parody" the greatest novel of the eighteenth century. Fielding third great novel "Amelia" appeared in 1751.
    He was much concerned about the structural principles of prose fiction , a matter to which neither Defoe nor Richardson had given much attention Finally, he is a great social satirist that intended it show the vice of his society.

      He is an 18th century novelist. He wrote half a dozen novels, the most important of which are " The Adventures of Roderick Random", "The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle", and "The Expedition of Humphrey clinker."
      Smollett conceived the novel as a large picture of life, and made little attempt to organize his materials into artistic whole. His stories are simply strings خيوط of adventures. His fertility خصوبة of invention and animation are remarkable; but his characters are generally very crudely بغير اتقان drawn. The world as he depicts expressly as a satirist and reformer مصلح , and that his purpose was to paint the evils of life.
The revival of romance
·      While the eighteenth century novel arose as a picture of men and sinners, some movements began to appear. A revival of romance was the result. In this revival the most obvious name is that of Horace Walpole, who has already been mentioned as a letter - writer.
·      He bought a small house which little by little he transformed it into a miniature صغير Gothic castle. The he wrote a Novel called " castle of Otranto" This extraordinary book" Castle of Otranto " impresses تدهشنا us today as a mere jumble crude غير مقنن supernaturalism.
      Sensationalism الأثارة was the general characteristic of the romantic fiction Ann Radcliffe gained a huge public by he " Romance of the forest " , "The Mysteries of Ridolph", and " The Italian", books which are very long , very complicated in plot, full of thrilling مرعبه situations. Mathew Gregory Lewes, achieved a great success on somewhat similar lines with his first book, "Ambrosia" or "The Monk".

20- What are the general characteristics of verse after the romantic revival ?

       The history of our later 18th century poetry is the History of a struggle between old and new and of the gradual triumph نصر of the new On the one hand. 
There were writers who followed the general practice of the school of pope. On the other hand, other writers are against school of pope and they end to fresh subjects, fresh forms, and fresh modes of feeling and expression. Thus the Age of Johnson, in respect of its poetry, is an age of transition تحول ,innovation ابداع , and varied experiment.

The  New characteristics of become:
The new characteristics of poetry become:
  (1) Emotion, passion and imagination invaded غزت  poetry to لكى تهدم وتحطم  the destruction of its dry intellectuality الفكر المجرد.
  (2) The old didactic principles were discarded ازيلت.
  (3)  Poetry ceased توقف to concern itself with the "town" and began to deal with nature and rustic ريفيه life.
 (4) The romantic spirit revived, and this revival brought with it great changes in the themes of verse.
  (5) Efforts were now made to break away from the conventions عادات of poetic diction, and to substitute احلالها for these simplicity of phrase and the language of nature.
  (6)  The supremacy سياده of the closed couplet was attacked, and other forms of verse used in its place.

The continuance of the Augustan Tradition

  Neglecting many minor men, we may here associate his with the names of two most important writers Johnson and Goldsmith. In an epoch فتره of change, They held fast to the past. They were equally convinced that the writers of the Augustan age provided " the true standard for future imitation". This the creative work of both these writers is classical in matter and manner.
        Johnson's two chief poems, " London" and "The Deserted village ", are didactic; They are written in the closed couplet.
The reaction in form
        In considering some aspects of the reaction against the Augustan tradition, we may begin with the change in from. The main feature of this reaction in style was the abandonment تركك of the pope an couplet for experiments in other kinds of verse.
  For example, the rise and spreading popularity of blank verse.
         The first important piece of 18th century blank verse in Thomson's "seasons", and squeal interest attached to what is known as the Spenserian revival.
  This began quite early in the century with a number of attempts to reproduce the Spenserian stanza, and even Spenser's diction. Johnson's " The rambler" is evident of the extending power of this particular movement.

  The growth of the love of nature in eighteenth century poetry
        The growth of the love of nature and of a feeling for a picturesque صور حيه is one of the most marked and interesting features in the history of English poetry.
 Thomas Parnell and Lady winchilsea show a sense of natural beauty and the charms of rural life. For example, James Thomson's "seasons" descriptive poem in which he gives us real landscape ;he writes largely from personal knowledge and many of his minor touches are marked by great precision احكام  and sympathy.

The Development of naturalism
        This return to nature meant something more than an increasing feeling for the picturesque and for the charms of the country. Greater simplicity in the subject-matter chosen, in the passions described, and in language employed, were thus among the principal objects aimed at by many poets.
         At this point mention may be made of the works of William blade. His "poetical sketches"," songs of Innocence " and "songs of experience" the love of the country , of simple life, of childhood and home, marks him out as a leader in that naturalistic kind of poetry.
         Meanwhile, another contrasted phase of naturalism was being exemplified by Blake's contemporary George Grabbe, in whose works; "The village", "The Newspaper", "Tales in verse" and "Tales of the half" it took the form of extreme realism.

By Romantic we can note:
(1) Spontaneity تلقائيه in literature, which implies تتضمن the assertion التأكيد of individuality against the conventions of the schools and the belief the poetic genius is really inspired.
  (2) A particular mood and temper, of which strange passion, sensibility.
  (3) A love of the wild, fantastic, abnormal غير مألوف and supernatural.
  (4) A fondness اعجاب  for a particular kind of subject-matter which was quite a fresh kind in the middle of the 18th century, and which gave free play to individual genius, and appealed to the newly taste for the marvelous.
  (5) Ballad literature became popular with general readers. The most important ballad book of the 18th century was bishop Percy's "Reliques of Ancient English poetry".
  (6) But for the full meaning of this phase of the romantic movement we have to turn to what are known as the Ossianic Poems. These Ossianic poems are filled with supernaturalism. The world they depicted was a world of heroic simplicity set in a landscape of mountains and mists ضباب.

22-Give an account on Gray, Burns, and Cowper ?

      Thomas Gray, a great scholar produced but little poetry, but what he wrote is not only fine in quality and finish, but is also interesting as a kind of essence of the changes which are coming over the literature of his time.
      The "Elegy written in a country churchyard" was published by in 1751 with this a great change appears There is, first, the use of nature. There is next, the churchyard scenes, the twilight atmosphere, and the melancholy of the poem, which at once connect it with one side of romantic movement.
      Robert Burns was endowed منح with a spontaneous power of genius and an almost unrivalled خارج المنافسة gist جوهر  of song. He is a Scottish peasant فلاح , he wrote frankly بصراحه  as a peasant, and became the poetic interpreter مفسر of the thoughts and feelings, humor, the homespun شعبيه  philosophy the joys, sorrows, passions, and superstition خرافه  of the class from which he sprang. He read widely and critically.
      Perhaps more than any other poet of the later 18th century he helped to bring natural passion back into English verse.
      William Cowper began to write poetry late in life. He was not a student of poetry;
  he gave little or no attention to poetry as an art; he wrote just to express his own ideas in his own way in his satires indeed he follows the conventional model of pope, but in his principal poem, "The Task", he abandons tradition entirely and pursues تبع an independent مستقل  course. This long blank verse poem is one sense as much the poetic masterpiece of late 18th century evangelicalism. In the sympathetic treatment of nature and landscape he comes nearest of all eighteenth century poets to wordsworth.

The age of wordsworth
"The older poets"
In fact, Romanticism is actually a reaction against Neo-Classicism which was characterized by the following:
A-It emphasized the importance of reason  (Rationalism or intellectual elements).
B- It is interested in the rules of the ancient masters (Aristotle and Horace).
C- It is interested in poetic diction ( highly elevated language)
D- It restricted imagination.
E- The function of poetry is to give us instruction (moral values).

William WordsWorth
William WordsWorth [1770-1850] is regarded as the greatest romantic poet and critic. He is the father of romanticism. He wrote such many good poems that he is sometimes considered as the third poet after Shakespeare and Milton.
The Lyrical Ballads and Wordsworth's the theory of poetry.
William Wordsworth's "Preface to the lyrical Ballads " is regarded as one of the most influential documents in English literary criticism. It is a revolt against the neo-classical principles and tenets.
Besides, it is a public declaration (manifesto) of the principles of Romanticism.
In his preface to the second edition of the 'Ballads', Wordsworth further sets his aims. The principal object proposed in these poems was to choose incidents and situations from common life, and to relate or describe them through in a selection of the language really used by men, and at the same time to throw over them a certain coloring of imagination, where by ordinary things should be presented to the mind in an unusual aspects; and he goes on to say that humble and rustic life was generally chosen because in that condition the essential passions of the heart find a better soil in which they can attain their maturity. In this declaration three points call for comment. In the first place, there is wordthworth's choice of subject: In search of themes he goes straight to common life and humble rustic life. Secondly, in the treatment of such theses, he sets out to employ the appropriate language of actual life. Thirdly, Wordsworth specially guards himself against the accusation of absolute realism by emphasizing his use of imagination in the poetic transformation of his materials.

Characteristics of William Wordsworth poetry
He uses simple language; the language used by common people. He wrote about humble and rustic life'. Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful Feeling.
Subjectivity is the key note of Romantic poetry. Thus, he expresses his personal thoughts, feeling through his poems. Nature becomes all in all to the poet. The sounding cataract haunted him like a passion. Nature was his beloved. He loved only the sensuous beauty of nature. He has also a philosophy of nature.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
   Samuel Taylor Coleridge [1772-1834] is regarded as the second great critic if the romantic age. He became acquainted with William Wordsworth who became his intimate friend. The lyrical Ballads was the fruit of their friendship.
   William Wordsworth was the poet of nature Coleridge became the poet of imagination and supernatural action. The time of the ancient mariner demonstrates Coleridge's talent for unsettling stories full of fantastic imagery and magic.

The Younger Poets
Two generation of romantics;
Older Generation
They were born during the thirty and twenty years preceding 1800.
The chief writers were wordsworth,
Coleridge, Scott, Southey, Blake, Lamb and Hazlitt.
Younger Generation
They were born in the last decade of the 1800.
The chief writer were Keats , Shelley and Byron.

The Characteristics:
The 1st generation writer were older than the 2nd generation writers, the 2nd generation writers died early.
The major writers of the 2nd generation were primarily poets.
The writer of the 1st generation, with the exception of Blake , all the second generation, only Byron enjoyed fame while he was alive, more fame than any of the other romantic writers.
Lord Byron
His greatness as a poet lies in the satires he wrote.
B-The vision
C-Don Juan
She struggled against the causes of human misery and accepted religion.
She saw goodness in the whole of nature.
His poems take the theme of revolt.
A-The Ode to the West Wind
He is a pagan وثنى  who worships the gods of ancient Greece.
He is the last romantic poet and the first to die.
His themes are very simple.
-        It tells about the downfall of the old gods and the rising of the new gods of strength and beauty

 B-Ode to a Nightingale
C-The Ode on Melancholy

General Prose
An important feature in the history of prose literature during the age of William Wordsworth is the rise of the modern review and magazines.
The Novel is began to seen as a form preoccupied with تختص ب  the relationship between self (human psychology النفس البشرى )
And society sociological dimension (البعد الاجتماعي) .In this age, the Gothic novels appeared. Literary Gothicism means horror literature which Romanic poet's wrote in the mid-18th century. The first Gothic Novel is Horace Walpole's "The Castle of Otranto'.

Sir Walter Scott
    Scott was the first British novelist to make a fortune by writing. His popularity chiefly rests on his historical novels. In Scott's day, Scotland had become settled and civilized.
   Scott was fascinated by the Scottish past, its folklore, historical figures. Scott always tries to recreate the atmosphere of the past, its scenery and event, its vernacular, but most of all, he portrays man in his public and social aspects, man that is to say, as he is conditioned by factors outside himself, by his place and function in society, his relation to a historic past.
  Scott's characters are embedded in a context of tradition, his history becomes alive because of his characters, In very rare instances are they flat characters; although they are presented from the outside, so to say, the public view of them, Scott does it with such skillfully observed detail that we are nearly always able to infer their inner lives.

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